Four Books of Facts Published for
the Benefit of Those Who De-
sire Reliable Information
as to Existing Condi-
tions in this
BANKERS' LOAN & SECURITIES COMPANY
Now Orleans, Louisiana, U. S. A.
Dedicated to the men
who have served in the
upbuilding of a mod-
ern civilization where
chaos formerly ruled.
GF.ORGF. A. SIMMS
THESE four small volumes including "The
Republic of Cuba," "Industrial Cuba," "Agri-
cultural Cuba," and "Cuban Investments," form
an attempt to put in findable shape many of those
facts so often sought for, unsuccessfully, regarding
one of the most interesting lands adjacent to the
Much time, research and considerable money
have been expended in the compilation of facts
herein contained and we would be derelict in duty
failing to publicly recognize the many who have
assisted, directly and by reference, in supplying
the information presented.
Mr. George Reno, Chief of Bureau of Informa-
tion, Department of Agricu-lture, Commerce and
Labor of Cuba; Mr. George Bradt, of The
Havana Post; Mr. Edward F. O'Brien of the
Times of Cuba and members of the Advertising
Club of Cuba have materially assisted in this
The works of Gral. Dr. Manuel F. Alfonso and
T. Valero Martinez, and H. A. Himely, also the
writings of Robert Wiles, Mulhall, and Willett
& Gray have supplied much valuable information
in the preparation of this work.
If it but serves to increase the interest of those
who heretofore have known little of the Cuban
Republic we will feel that our efforts have been
The Republic of Cuba
YOUNGEST of the republics and occupying
an area a little larger than that of Indiana,
Pennsylvania or Ohio, and not as large as New
York, Illinois or Wisconsin, Cuba has shown a
greater ratio of development in its limited history
than any other country on the globe.
Its population is about the same as that of
California, Indiana, Iowa, or Wisconsin.
Laid down on the map of the United States
Cuba would extend from New York City almost
to Cincinnati and it varies in width from 22 to
1 60 miles.
The history of Cuba is replete with romance
and interest. Since its discovery in 1492 it has
been fought for by the nations of the world as
the prize of the Caribbean. For more than 300
years its industries were built up only to be
periodically demolished by internal and external
In 1895 tne fi na l rebellion against Spain broke
out and after much devastation ended in the
Spanish-American War which resulted in the
establishment of the Cuban Republic.
This period of strife was the worst in the entire
history of Cuba. Property was burned and
destroyed, cattle were killed and reprisals of every
sort put into effect for the purpose of cutting
off the opponent's livelihood.
The naval battle at Santiago, on the 3rd of
July, 1898, forever settled the question of Spanish
dominion over Cuba. The conditions of peace
presented by the United States were accepted by
Spain on August I2th, and the Paris Protocol,
prepared on October ist of the same year, was
signed on December loth.
The Republic of Cuba
With the withdrawal of the Spanish troops
those of the United States and of Cuba herself,
were distributed to preserve order and quiet and
to organize departments which guaranteed a good
and safe government.
In July 1900, the United States military gov-
ernor of Cuba decreed an election of delegates to
a constitutional convention to be held the follow-
ing September and to arrange for an election by
the people under the constitution so framed.
The election was held on September 15, 1900,
and in less than three months the constitution
was completed on lines very similar to those of
the Constitution of the United States.
On December 3ist, 1901, an election of officers
for the new republic was held with the result that
Estrada Palma was chosen as the first President
of the Cuban Republic.
On the 24th of March following, the United
States began the withdrawal of troops and thus
began the real establishment of the Cuban
The Palma administration continued from May
20, 1902, until October 13, 1906. The policy of
the Government did not satisfy the Liberal Party,
and soon after the second election, an uprising
occurred which resulted in the United States
being solicited to intervene, which it did under
the direction of President Roosevelt, who ap-
pointed a Governor General of the Island. In
this second intervention, however, the United
States Government took only the position of
preserving order. On the 29th of January, 1909,
General Jose Miguel Gome/, took the chair as the
Second President of Cuba the inauguration be-
ing held on the birthday of Jose Marti, called the
"Apostle of Cuban Liberty."
The Republic of Cuba
At the expiration of the term of General Jose
Miguel Gomez, elections were again held, wherein
the Liberal Party nominated Dr. Alfredo Zayas,
and the Conservative Party, General Mario G.
Menocal the latter being elected President on
November i, 1912, his term of office continuing
until May 20, 1917.
THE SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT
Insofar as local conditions of Cuba permit, the
system of government is modelled on that of the
United States. There are a President and Vice-
President, who serve terms of four years. The
President appoints a cabinet of nine members, as
follows: Secretary of State, Secretary of the
Treasury, Secretary of the Executive Depart-
ment, Secretary of Justice, Secretary of the
Interior, Secretary of Public Works, Secretary of
Public Instruction, Secretary of Agriculture, Com-
merce and Labor, and Secretary of Sanitation.
At the general election, preceding the expiration
of the presidential term of office, each of the six
provinces elects a number of presidential and vice-
presidential electors, equal to the combined num-
ber of senators and representatives to which each
province is entitled, and a third as many alter-
nates. This body proceeds to the election of the
President and Vice-President.
The Senate consists of 24 members, 4 from each
of the provinces, elected for terms of eight years
one-half of the number being elected every four
years. . The Vice-President is the presiding
officer, but to provide for contingencies, the
Senate also elects one of its members to that office
and he is considered to be the leader of the body,
especially in the absence of the Vice-President.
The Republic of Cuba
The members of the Senate are elected by the
members of the provincial councils and the
Senatorial Electors named at the election next
prior to the expiration of the Senatorial terms.
These electors, in each province are 16 in number
one half of whom must be elected from a list
of the largest tax payers, and the other half being
men of prominence and position.
Thus the body is made up of twenty-four.
The House of Representatives has a member-
ship of 99; the basis being: i Representative for
each 25,000 inhabitants. The members of the
House are elected, by the direct vote of the
people, for terms of 4 years one half of the body
being elected each two years.
Each of the six provinces has a Governor who
resides in the capital of the province and is
elected for a term ot four years. The Governors
are assisted by a Council of eight members who
serve terms of four years four being elected each
There are 103 municipal districts in the
TABLOID HISTORY OF EXECUTIVES
The following short histories are calculated to
illustrate the high character ot those men in
charge ot Cuban governmental affairs. Cuba has
profit ted materially by the experience ot the
I'nited States in the selection of men at the head
of its government and a perusal ot the short
historical or biographical sketches will demon-
strate that only men of high executive ability have
been chosen to pertorm the tasks and to solve the
problems which are now making the Island Re-
public a power in world diplomacy and commerce.
PRESIDENT MARIO G. MENOCAL
11 The Republic of Cuba
MARIO G. MENOCAL
MARIO G. MENOCAL graduated from Cornell
University as a Civil Engineer in the class of
1888. Shortly afterwards he was called to assist his
uncle Aniceto Menocal, the celebrated engineer
who was then engaged in the survey of the
Nicaragua Canal route between the Atlantic and
Pacific. He continued in the practice of his
profession until the beginning of the war of
Independence in the Spring of 1895, when he at
once joined the Insurgents, rising rapidly to the
rank of Colonel. In the Spring of 1896 General
Calixto Garcia, operating in Oriente and Cama-
guey Provinces, made him his Chief of Staff.
In the capture of Victoria de las Tunas, and
of Guaimaro by General Calixto Garcia, Menocal
so distinguished himself that he was promoted to
a General of Brigade and sent with his command
into the Western end of the Island, where the
struggle for supremacy was day by day growing
The close of the war found him in command of
the Cuban forces of Havana Province, and when,
after the withdrawal of Spain's army, the Ameri-
cans took charge of the capital, Gen. Menocal
was chosen to assist in the difficult task of bringing
order out of chaos. With that end in view he
visited Washington as one of the Cuban Delegates
to the Intervention Conference. On his return
Gen. Leonard A. Wood made him Chief of Police.
The almost abandoned industrial interests of
the Island at this time were clamoring for men
of practical ability, hence it is not strange that
a man of Gen. Menocal's technical skill, experi-
ence and acquaintance with the world was offered
The Republic of Cuba 12
substantial inducement to ally himself with the
sugar industry which for over half a century has
been the chief source of Cuba's wealth.
The Republic was apparently doing well under
the guidance of "Don Tomas," as President
Palma was called in Cuba; peace, order and
prosperity seemed assured for a long time to
come, so Gen. Menocal went to Puerto Padre
in Oriente and there, as General Manager for
the Cuban American Sugar Co., helped build
"Chaparra," one of the greatest Centrals in the
world. These were followed by "Tinguaro,"
"Nueva Luisa," "Constancia," "San Manuel,"
"Las Delicias," "Merceditas" and "Unidad."
These include the greatest sugar estates and mills
in existence, in whose direction President Menocal
still retains a large interest, which is said to
bring him an income of $100,000 a year.
When the life, or permanency of the Republic,
was threatened by the uprising of 1906, Gen.
Menocal went at once to Havana and endeavored
to bring about peace through mediation between
the party in power and the Liberals in the field.
Before anything was accomplished, however,
Theodore Roosevelt sent his Secretary of War to
Cuba who arranged matters according to his own
ideas, and General Menocal returned to Chaparra.
General Menocal was elected in the campaign of
1912 and was inaugurated President of the Re-
public of Cuba, on May 20, 1913. Owing to the
number of Liberal members of the Congress hold-
ing over, the President found himself on several
occasions absolutely powerless to carry out many
important measures which he believed essential
to the Republic's best interests. The opposition
seemed determined to block all plans of the ad-
ministration by arbitrarily refusing to permit a
The Republic of Cuba
quorum in either branch of Congress. This first
became manifest when the President asked for a
loan of $15,000,000.00 with which to continue
work suspended in the streets of Havana for lack
of funds in the treasury.
Days passed into weeks with Congress still
refusing to meet. In this emergency, Menocal
called Dr. Alfredo Zayas, ex-Vice-President of
Cuba and leader of a large group of the Liberal
party. After listening to the President's state-
ment of the facts, and realizing the actual neces-
sity for action, he sent word to his followers in
Congress that a quorum must be formed, and the
loan authorized at once, since the welfare of the
country demanded it. Congress met, and in
spite of the opposition, offered by what is known
as the "Miguelista" branch of the Liberals, the
bill was passed by a good majority.
In the matter of national budget, also, the
Conservative Administration was sorely perplexed
and embarrassed by the attitude of Congress
whose members simply ignored the urgent
demand for action. Again Dr. Zayas rose to
the occasion and compelled the opposition to
act favorably which they immediately proceeded
to do by passing the first budget bill that had
been enacted in four years.
The Liberal leader has been severely criticized
by members of his own party and was accused of
selling out to the Conservatives. In the estima-
tion of thinking people, however, he is given
credit for a sensible and truly patriotic attitude
from which the country at large has benefitted
and which undoubtedly places him in the category
of statesmen who have both foresight and ability.
In the selection of his Cabinet, all of which,
with one exception, were men of his own choice,
The Republic of Cuba 14
President Menocal displayed excellent judgment.
Taken as a whole, it would be difficult to find in
Cuba men more earnest, energetic, capable and
conscientious than those who, as Chiefs of the
different Departments, co-operate with him in
the direction of public affairs.
DR. ENRIQUE JOSE VARONA
R. ENRIQUE JOSE VARONA, one
of Cuba's most distinguished
scholars and philosophers, who
represents, perhaps better than
any one else in the Island,
those sound, sane and safe
views of conservative govern-
ment, was Gen. Menocal's running mate and was
elected Vice-President of the Republic with him.
To one who dislikes the turmoil, stress and
frequent bitterness of political life, the position
which he occupies has less annoyance than most
offices within the gift of the people. Any country
might well be proud of Dr. Varona, who, although
not what we would call a fighter, has nevertheless
the courage of his convictions and the moral
stamina to not only preach good precepts, but
to live up to them.
The Republic of Cuba
DR. RAFAKL MONTORO
Secretary of the Executive Department
S dean of the Executive Coun-
cil stands out prominently
"that Grand Old Man of
Cuba," Dr. Rafael Montoro,
for many years Cuba's Min-
ister at the Court of St.
James, where, in spite of our
minor political position, in
comparison with the great "world powers," he was
invariably accorded that preferment which true
worth and genuine culture alone can command.
Dr. Montoro is today Secretary of the Execu-
tive branch of the Cuban Government, and on
his shoulders falls the weight of many of the young
Republic's knotty problems.
DR. PABLO DESVERNINE
Secretary of State
"HE President chose the dis-
tinguished lawyer, Cosme de
la Torriente, for his Secretary
of State, but ill health within
a few months compelled him
to resign in favor of Dr. Pablo
Desvernine, former Minister
Plenipotentiary at Washington and probably the
best known Cuban in the United States, not alone
because he practiced law for seven years in
New York City, but because his fundamental
knowledge of all civilized codes has compelled
recognition throughout the judicial world. Dr.
Desvernine is a master of some five or six lan-
guages, which fact is most serviceable to him
in receiving representatives of foreign nations.
The Republic of Cuba
DR. LEOPOLDO CANCIO
Secretary of the Treasury
R. LEOPOLDO CANCIO, lawyer
and statistician, was made
Secretary of the Treasury, a
position that he had filled with
credit under the Government,
of the First Intervention.
Probably no one in Cuba is
better versed than he in the
intricacies of those financial and industrial prob-
lems which unavoidably beset a young Republic.
COL. AURELIO HEVIA
Secretary of the Interior on Government
OL. AURELIO HEVIA had been a
close personal friend of the
President during the War of
Independence, and,with Cosme
de la Torriente, took upon
his shoulders the management
of his presidential campaign.
Col. Hevia was not unknown
in political life, having been Assistant Secretary
of State under President Palma, but his forte
seemed to be organization, and the management
of men, either individually or in parties, hence
it is that the Department of Government, which
controls the administration of provinces and
municipalities throughout the Island, seems to
be, for him, a congenial berth. Difficulties to
Hevia only relieve life of monotony.
The Republic of Cuba
DR. CRISTOBAL DE LA GUARDIA
Secretary of Justice
R. CRISTOBEL DE LA GUARDIA
did not come from strictly
conservative ranks, but his
never failing urbanity, his de-
lightfully broad-minded de-
mocracy, combined with rare
judicial qualities, have made
him a very popular Secretary of Justice.
COL. JOSE R. VILLALON
Secretarv of Public Works
INCE Spain departed from
the Island, fate has twice
decreed that Col. Jose R.
Villalon should be Secretary
of Public Works. Gen. W 7 ood
first found him, and remarked:
"That man is a wonder of mar-
velously directed and persistent energy; if there is
another like him in Cuba, I have not met him."
Villalon graduated from Lehigh University in
the same class with Senator Root of New York.
He loves his profession as an engineer and did
not aspire to a Cabinet position. When the
psychological moment arrived, his life-long friend,
President Menocal, smiled at his refusal and
said: "Find me another competent and fit for
the position, and I may let you go." The other
was not found, and so Villalon is the head of a
Department that is doing things. If the money
could be found, the country's public works would
go ahead at aeroplane speed.
The Republic^ Cuba 18
GEN. EMILIO NUNEZ
Secretary of Agriculture, Commerce and Labor
F all the Cabinet positions,
however, that which carries
with it the most detail, and
the greatest responsibilities, is
held by Gen. Emilio Nunez,
Secretary of Agriculture, Com-
merce and Labor. Gen. Nunez
is a big man, mentally as well
as physically, and when difficulties or complex-
ities arise in any one of the score or more of
branches into which his department is divided,
he either solves them on the spot, or orders one
of his bureau chiefs to whip them into shape so
they can be properly handled.
Not alone agriculture, with its many depend-
encies, such as forestry, mines, etc., whence,
owing to the nature of the Island, come most of
Cuba's wealth, but commerce, labor, immigration,
patents, trade marks, agricultural schools, experi-
mental stations, local fairs and foreign expositions,
come under the direction of Gen. Nunez. In the
great mass of detail pertaining to this work, the
services of Assistant Secretary, Dr. Lorenzo Arias,
of Pinar del Rio, are invaluable. Nothing secures
the stamp of his approval until he is convinced
of its worth.
The Republic of Cuba
DR. EZEQUIEL GARCIA-ENSENAT
Secretary of Public Instruction
R. EZEQUIEL GARCIA-ENSENAT
as Secretary of Public In-
struction, has an immense
task in the development of
Cuba's most crying need.
This Department is divided
into two sections; one has
charge of preliminary educa-
tion and has under its control all the elementary
schools, while the other has control over the Nor-
mal and High Schools, the University of Cuba, the
School of Arts and Crafts, the School of Painting
and Sculpture, the National Conservatory of
Music and Declamation, the National and other
Public Libraries and the National Astronomical
Compared with the high illiteracy which
maintained under Spanish rule, much has been
accomplished along the lines of education and
while much is to be desired there is every prospect
of Cuba taking its place in the ranks of the well-
educated nations of the world.
The Republic of Cuba 20
DR. ENRIQUE NUNEZ
Secretary of Sanitation and Public Charities
^ERHAPS the most important
Portfolio of the entire Cabi-
net is that of Sanitation and
Public Charities, and also the
one which has accomplished
most since the Independence
of the Republic.
The Department had a
unique reputation to live up to, having carried
on the work begun under Gen. Wood (when
Cuba was one of the unhealthiest pest-ridden
countries of the globe), to the admiration of
all, including its tutors, and it was therefore
with complete confidence that President Menocal
selected one of Cuba's foremost physicians and
surgeons, Dr. Enrique Nunez, to uphold this
reputation and continue the great work.
That Secretary Enrique Nunez and his Depart-
ment have not disappointed this expectation is
proven first by the fact that Cuba is today the
healthiest country in the world, with a death rate
of only 12.70 per thousand (see statistics on page
30), and also one of the cleanest; and secondly,
by the very important practical results obtained
by the active campaigns initiated by Dr. Nunez
and his assistant, Dr. Lopez del Valle, against
infantile mortality, the adulteration of milk and
foodstuffs, the sale and use of heroic drugs,
opium, morphine, cocaine, etc., and vice in
general; the establishment of new hospitals and
sanitariums for the poor, for children, for tuber-
culosis patients and subjects; of summer colonies
for poor children, clinics, creches, a special
department of visiting nurses to the homes of
21 The Republic of Cuba
poor mothers and prospective mothers, etc.; all
free to those who are unable to pay; the sanitary
regulations for cafes, bakeries, coffee-houses, etc.,
and by many other accomplishments of primary
importance to the public health.
Dr. Nunez was born in Madruga in 1872,
graduated as Doctor of Medicine and Surgery
from the University of Havana (the oldest in
the New World) in 1892, obtaining at the early
age of twenty the highest awards in open com-
petition, given at the University, viz.: that of
Extraordinary Degree of Honour.
At the outbreak of the War of Independence
in 1895, Dr. Nunez at once gave up his large
and lucrative practice and joined the Army of
Liberation, of which he became the most brilliant
surgeon, serving alike friend and foe, and was
soon appointed Chief Surgeon of the Armies of
Generals Calixto Garcia and Mario G. Menocal.
After the War he became lecturing professor
at the University of Havana and again took up
his practice, without at any time having taken
an active part in politics, until his entrance into
President Menocal's Cabinet in 1913.
The Republic of Cuba 22
CUBAN LEGATION IN WASHINGTON
Dr. Carlos M. de Cespedes, Envoy Extra-
ordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary.
Manuel de la Vega, First Secretary of the Lega-
Jose A. Acosta, Vice Consul.
UNITED STATES DIPLOMATIC CORPS IN CUBA
LEGATION AT HAVANA
Hon. William E. Gonzales, Envoy Extra-
ordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary.
Gustave Scholle, First Secretary of Legation.
Glenn Stewart, Second Secretary of Legation.
Major Edmund Wittenmyer, Military Attache.
CUBAN CONSULAR CORPS IN THE UNITED STATES
Ernesto H. Lienau Aguadilla, P. R.
Fernando Aleman Vallee Arecibo, P. R.
C. H. Whitington Atlanta, Ga.
Eduardo L. Desvernine Baltimore, Md.
Rafael Cervino Boston, Mass.
Rosendo Torras Brunswick, Ga.
Francisco Pena y Hernandez Cincinnati, Ohio
George Bancroft Murray Chattanooga, Tenn.
Calixto Garcia Becerra Chicago, 111.
C. W. Harrah Detroit, Mich.
J. N. O. Partridge Fernandina, Fla.
Ernesto Casaus y Almoina Galveston, Tex.
Jos. W. Corry Gulfport, Miss.
Crescencio Sacerio y Arencibia Jacksonville, Fla.
Henry Clay McDougal Kansas City, Mo.
Antonio Diaz Carrasco Key West, Fla.
Richard P. Cane Louisville, Ky.
James Pennie Los Angeles, Cal.
Ramon L. Bonachea y Sarduy Mobile, Ala.
Gustavo Marin Herrera Mayaguez, P. R.
Leopoldo Dolz, Consul-General New York, X. Y.
Felipe Taboada, Consul New York, N. Y.
The Republic of Cuba.
Romarico Seva, Vice-Consul New York, N. Y.
Jose R. Cabrera New Orleans, La.
Tomas Estrada Palma Newport News, Va.
Caspar de la Vega Norfolk, Va.
Manuel Leon Ross Pascagoula, Miss.
Vincent J. Vidal Pensacola, Fla.
J. J. Luis y Alcazar Philadelphia, Pa.
Francisco Porto Ponce, P. R.
Buenaventura E. Puyans San Francisco, Cal.
Augusto Aguilera St. Louis, Mo.
Jose Caminero San Juan, P. R.
Arthur J. Howard Savannah, Ga.
Rafael Martinez Ibor Tampa, Fla.
UNITED STATES CONSULAR CORPS IN CUBA
George Bayliss, Consular Agent Antilla.
Augusto Soler, Consular Agent Baracoa.
P. B. Anderson, Consular Agent Caibarien.
George A. Brenneis, Consular Agent Cardenas.
Richard M. Bartleman, Consul Cienfuegos.
Buenaventura Carbo, Vice and Dep. .Con. . .Cienfuegos.
Clinton B. Goodrich, Consular Agent Guantanamo.
James Linn Rodgers, Consul General Havana.
Joseph A. Springer, Vice and Dep. Con. Gen. .Havana.
Raoul F. Washington, Dep. Consul General. .Havana.
Francis B. Bertot, Consular Agent Manzanillo.
Alfred Heydrich, Consular Agent Matanzas.
V. P. Sutherland, Consular Agent Nueva Gerona(I. of P.)
Dean R. Wood, Consular Agent Nuevitas.
John F. Jova, Consular Agent Sagua la Grande.
P. Merril Griffith, Consul Santiago de Cuba.
Harry C. Morgan, Vice and Dep. Con Santiago de Cuba.
James H. Dod, Consular Agent Santa Clara.
The Republic of Cuba 24
THE ARMY OF CUBA
The Army of Cuba consists of about 12,000
men, of which about 11,400 are enlisted men and
The subdivisions are: General Staff, 6 Cavalry
Regiments, one Infantry Regiment, one Artillery
Regiment, Medical and Veterinary Department
and Auditor's Department.
In times of peace, six squadrons of 1 50 men each,
of each of the six cavalry regiments are utilized
for the preservation of public order and protec-
tion of persons and properties outside of the
townships, while the balance of the army is
employed exclusively in military services.
The Republic is divided into eight military
districts, six of which are made up by the six
provinces, with one regiment of cavalry each,
one by the camp of Columbia, with the infantry
regiment, and one by the military posts of
la Cabana, la Fuerza, Batteries i, 2, 3, 4 and 5
Velasco and Santa Clara, Habana, with the
artillery regiment. The command of each mili-
tary district corresponds to the command of the
military unit there garrisoned.
The army is well equipped and highly efficient.
The regulations are practically those of the
United States Army and for several years after
the American occupation, American officer-
instructors were used in its upbuilding and
organization. This small but efficient force may
co-ordinate with the army of the United States
in case of necessity. The ordnance standard is
the same as that of the United States Army and
the uniforms are very similar to those employed
in our regular army. The artillery is equipped
with the famous Schneider-Creuzot, 75mm,
French Army model rapid fire guns.
The Republic of Cuba
The City of Havana typifies the high efficiency
of local policing. When one considers that a city
of some 400,000 people has an average of some
2,000 policemen, it must be evident that the work
Quite a number of this force is employed
in handling the traffic of Havana and in main-
taining order in the crowded streets. This force
is commanded by General Armando Sanchez
Agramonte, Chief of the National Police, with
a staff of Captains, Lieutenants, Sergeants, etc.
The men of this organization were selected from
those who displayed cool-headedness and bravery
during the War of Independence.
THE CUBAN NAVY
The Cuban Navy is not large, but ample to
A total of twenty vessels with a tonnage of
5,921 and a total crew, including the staff,
amounting to 915.
The principal object of this force is to patrol
the coast in the interest of the Revenue Depart-
ment and keep a watchful eye on the fishing and
sponge fleets in certain restricted seasons.
The revenue-cutter service was organized in
May, 1902, under the direction of Capt. George
Reno, present Chief of the Bureau of Information.
On August 20, 1910, Senor Julio Morales Coello,
Aide-de-camp to President Gomez, was appointed
Chief of the National Marine, which position he
still occupies. The armament of the larger ves-
sels is modeled on that of the United States.
The "Cuba," with a tonnage of 2,055, has
served in many diplomatic naval missions.
The Republic of Cuba 2G
DEPARTMENT OF PRISONS
Many of our own States could well pattern
after the efficient system employed for the care
of indigents in Cuba.
A system of instruction, sanitation, workman-
ship, recreation and discipline has been built up
in the prisons, which raises them to the level of
the best establishments of the kind in the world.
The Department of Prisons is under the direc-
tion of Commissioner General Demetrio Castillo
Duany, and the penitentiary, situated in the old
Principe Castle, located on the crest of a hill
overlooking the City of Havana is a model
institution of its kind.
DEPARTMENT OF IMMIGRATION
The station for immigrants, located at "Tris-
cornia," adjacent to the City of Havana, was
built for the exclusive convenience of the many
immigrants arriving at that port, and its main-
tenance is provided for by the Government
without profits, at the insignificant charge of 2oc
per day from each immigrant.
Very many good rules govern Cuban immigra-
tion, among which may be mentioned, that no
immigrant may land who comes as a contracted
laborer. All immigrants are examined individu-
ally by the inspector on board the incoming ship
and admittance may be refused on the grounds
of contagious diseases, beggary, lunacy, or lack
of sufficient funds for proper maintenance, or
During the five years, 1910-1915, there were
358,189 passengers who passed the inspection of
27 The Republic of Cuba
LANDS, TITLES AND TAXES
Cuba offers a great opportunity for the purchase
of large bodies of lands at prices comparatively
small with those in force in the United States.
Good land may be obtained in small tracts at
from $40.00 to $100.00 per acre, and there are
many prosperous communities (made up almost
entirely of Americans) who have sought the
Island as their place of permanent residence.
A great deal of care should be exercised in the
examination of titles before purchasing lands on
the Island, and the prospective purchaser would
do well to have titles examined by a reliable
There is a local registrar of property in each
of the districts and all liens against property
must be recorded with this registrar before they
become effective under the law.
Land titles in Cuba are exceptionally good,
and if proper care is taken in the acquiring of
property no person need every worry about the
title. A transfer costs more in Cuba than in
the United States, but the additional cost is more
than justified in the absolute security of title
when transfer is properly made.
The execution of a deed is a much more formal
matter in Cuba than it is in the United States.
The buyer and seller must appear before the
notary and be well vouched for. Property is
described by the boundaries with other proper-
ties, and sometimes the bounds stated in meters,
and the tracts are said to contain so many
"caballerias" (33.16 acres each). The notary
must see the money paid; and if he does not,
and the vendor acknowledges its receipt, it will
be so stipulated in the deed. Both contracting
The Republic of Cuba 28
parties sign the deed with necessary witnesses.
The purchaser does not receive this deed, but a
copy of it, which is furnished by the notary and
another copy is sent to the National Treasury,
as one per cent of the purchase price of all trans-
fers of property in Cuba must be paid to the
State. The fees for registration are moderate in
PERTINENT FACTS ABOUT CUBA
(The following facts are detailed at length in
the various booklets accompanying. They are
only given here for quick reference) :
The Island is approximately 760 miles long.
Cuba's sea coast is approximately 2,000 miles
long, with more fine deep water harbors than any
other country in the Western Hemisphere.
Total Foreign Commerce (1915) over $409,000,000.00
Exports for year ending in December, 1915 254,292,000.00
Imports for fiscal year ending December, 1915 155,448,000.00
Balance of trade in favor of Cuba 98,844,000.00
Balance of trade per capita 39-54
Fore gn exports of Cuba per capita 101 .72
Fore gn imports of Cuba per capita 62 . 1 8
Fore gn exports of United States per capita 22 .00
Fore gn imports of United States per capita 17.00
Fore gn debt of Cuba per capita 27 . 50
Fore gn debt of Great Britain per capita 80.00
Fore gn debt of France per capita 158.00
Fore gn debt of the United States per capita 10.00
(Although Cuba has a larger per capita debt
than the United States, her per capita foreign
commerce is 500 per cent higher than that of the
Her tobacco yield is valued at $25,000,000.00
Although the groves are young, citrus fruits
and vegetables produce $5,000,000.00 annually.
29 The Republic of Cuba
Pineapples, cacao, honey, asphalt, iron, hene-
quen, mahogany, cedar, etc., yield $10,000,000.00.
Its exports have increased in ten years 150 per
Its imports have increased in ten years 82 per
All but 19 per cent of Cuba's exports
($254,292,000.00) go to the United States.
67^ per cent of Cuba's imports
($155,448,000.00) come from the United States.
Since the beginning of the Republic (1902)
Cuba's Foreign Commerce has increased 250 per
Cuba has 1,246 miles of magnificent shaded
auto roads or driveways.
Range of temperature (mean) 12 degrees
January average, 70.3. , July, 82.4 degrees.
Extremes, 60 to 92.
Average rainfall, 54 inches. Dry in winter;
showers in summer.
Population, 2,500,000. Yearly increase, about
Excess of births over deaths, 40,000.
Average yearly immigration, 37,000.
70 per cent of population white, 30 per cent
Permanent schools, 4,011. Teachers, 4,111.
There are 2,360 miles of railroads in Cuba,
with 200 miles of electric railways.
22 steamers a week to the United States.
Sugar cane on virgin land may be cut for
thirty years without replanting.
Tobacco is planted, grown and gathered in
In no part of the world are cattle, horses and
stock ot all kinds raised with greater success.
The Republic of Cuba 30
Cuba is the healthiest country in the world,
as the figures in the following table, giving the
number of deaths per thousand, will show:
Cuba 12. -jo
Australia 13 . 10
United States 15.00
England 1 7 . 70
Germany 1 7 . 80
France 20 . 60
Spain 29 . 70
Cuba has but 53 persons to the square mile,
while the Bermuda Islands have 1,000; Belgium,
600; Java, 595; Rhode Island, 500; Holland, 454;
England, 425; Porto Rico, 330; Japan, 317;
German Empire, 315; and Italy, 310. With all
her natural richness this island can easily sustain
more inhabitants per square mile than any of
the above mentioned countries.
The Republic of Cuba
(Published for the benefit of those who may personally
SPANISH THE UNIVERSAL LANGUAGE
Spanish is generally spoken throughout Cuba,
although English and French are used to some
extent. Visitors from the United States will find
little difficulty since English is spoken in prac-
tically all the hotels, cafes and shops.
LIST OF HOTELS
Flor de Cuba
Isla de Cuba
Santiago de Cuba:
Isla de Cuba
Sagua La Grande:
Perla de Cuba
V. de las Tunas:
Isla de Cuba
Pinar Del Rio:
Ciego de A"ila:
Isla de Cuba
The Republic of Cuba
Neuva Gerona, I. of P.
Bibijagua, I. of P.
San Pedro, I. of P.
Santa Fe, I. of P.
Los Indies, I. of P.
Santa Barbara, I. of P.
La Siguanea, I. of P.
Delicias de Copey
Santa Barbara Inn
Baggage will be attended to by the official
interpreters from hotels. This will save the
visitor much annoyance in conforming to cus-
HAVANA PARKS AND DRIVES
Colon Park. Amistad and Reina Streets.
Central Park. Prado Avenue.
San Juan de Dios Park. Aguiar and Empedrado Streets.
Trillo Park. Hospital and San Rafael Streets.
Juan Bruno Zayas Park. Fronting the Post Office.
Cristo Park. Villegas and Teniente Rey Streets.
Luz Caballero Park. Carcel Street.
India Park. Prado and Dragones Streets.
Almeda de Paula. San Pedro Streets.
Prado Avenue Drive. On the Prado.
Plaza de Monserrate Park. Obispo and Monserrate Streets.
Carlos III Drive. Belascoain Avenue.
Maceo Park. San Lazaro Avenue.
Malecon. End of the Prado.
Plaza de Armas Park. Obispo and O'Reilly Streets.
Medina Park. At Vedado.
Tulipan Park. At Cerro.
BAND CONCERTS HAVANA PARKS
Tuesdays from 5 to 7 p. m. at Malecon.
Thursdays from 8 to 10 p. m. at Malecon.
Fridays from 8 to 10 p. m. at Central Park.
Sundays from 5 to 7 p. m. at Malecon.
Sundays from 8 to 10.30 p. m. at Malecon.
Sundays from 8 to 10 p. m. at Central Park.
33 The Republic of Cuba
BANKS OF HAVANA
Banco Espanol de la Isla de Cuba (head office and 9 branches).
AguiarSi. Phone A-yiji.
The National Bank of Cuba. Obispo y Cuba. Phone A-iii6.
Royal Bank of Canada. Obrapia 33. Phone A-H4I.
The National City Bank of New York (Antillas Branch). Cuba 76.
Trust Co. of Cuba. Obispo 53. Phone 2822.
H. Hupmann & Co. Amargura I. Phone A-ffiS.
Gelats & Co. Aguiar 108. Phone A-4683.
Alvarez Valdes & Co. Ricla j-A. Phone 3188.
G. Lawton Childs Co. O'Reilly 4. Phone A-678.
RAILROAD STATIONS IN HAVANA
United Railways of Havana.
Havana Central Railways.
Western Railways of Havana.
All trains depart from the new
Marianac Railway, trains for Country Club,
Racetrack, Marianao and Beach, every 10 min-
utes from Terminus, at corner of Galiano and
Peninsular & Occidental, for Key West and Port Tampa. Bernaze 3.
O'Reilly 4. Phone A-65y8, A-gigi.
Ward Line, for New York, Nassau, Progreso and Vera Cruz. Prado
1 1 8. Phone A-6i54-
United Fruit Co. /'The Great White Fleet," for New York, Boston,
New Orleans, Jamaica, Panama, Colombia and Costa
Rica. Lonja del Comercio. Phone A-5228.
Southern Pacific, "Morgan Line," for New Orleans. Obispo 49.
Hamburg-American Line, for F'.urope, Vera Cruz and Progreso.
San Ignacio 54. Phone .^-4878.
Spanish Line, for P'.urope, Mexico and Vera Cruz. San Ignacio 72.
The Republic of Cuba 34
North German Lloyd, for Europe. San Ignacio 76. Phone A-2yoo.
French Line for Europe, Progreso and Vera Cruz. Oficios 90.
Phone A- 1 476.
The Royal Mail Steam Packet Co., for New York, Antilla, Jamaica
and Panama. Oficios 1 8. Phone A-6 540.
Herrera Line, for North Coast of Cuba. San Pedro 6. Phone
Cuban Steamship Line "Luis Odriozola"
(South and East Bound)
(Now all merged into Navigation Corporation of Cuba "Em-
presa Naviera de Cuba").
Havana los Indies, Isle of Pines, Cienfuegos, Casilda, Tunas de
Zaza, Jucaro, Santa Cruz del Sur, Guayabal, Manzanillo, Ensenada
de Mora and Santiago de Cuba; also Porto Rico.
Isle of Pines. Trains leave Central Station at 6.1 5 p. m. Monday,
Wednesday and Friday for Batabano,in connection with the steamers
for Isle of Pines. Prado 118. Phone A-4OJ4.
CUBAN TELEGRAPH RATES
Cuban Telegraph Service
Operated by the Government
Entire address counted as part of telegram.
Limits of 3 provinces, 10 words for 2oc, and 2c each added word.
Limits of 4 provinces, 10 words for joe and 4C each added word.
Limits of 5 provinces, 10 words for 4OC and 4C each added word.
Limits of 6 provinces, 10 words for 5oc and fc each added word.
Telegrams for Newspapers (subjects of general
interest) are ic per word to all parts of the Island.
Minimum 20 words.
Telegrams for the City of Havana and suburbs,
loc each 10 words.
Night telegrams, 50 words, 5oc. Nightly
received between 8 to 10 p. m.
The Republic of Cuba
WESTERN UNION CABLE TARIFF TO
THE UNITED STATES
Per Word Per Word
Alabama 15 Mississippi 15
Arizona 20 Missouri, St. Louis 15
Arkansas 20 The other stations 20
California 20 Montana 20
Colorado 20 Nebraska 20
Connecticut 15 Nevada 20
Delaware 15 New Hampshire 15
District of Columbia 15 New Jersey 15
Florida, Key West 10 New Mexico 20
The other stations 15 New York 15
Georgia 15 North Carolina 15
Idaho 20 North Dakota 20
Illinois 15 Ohio 15
Indiana 15 Oklahoma 20
Indian Territory 20 Oregon 20
Iowa 20 Pennsylvania 15
Kansas 20 Rhode Island 15
Kentucky 15 South Carolina 15
New Orleans and Baton South Dakota 20
Rouge 15 Tennessee 15
The other stations 20 Texas 20
Maine 15 Utah 20
Manitoba 20 Vermont 15
Maryland 15 Virginia 15
Massachusetts 15 Washington 20
Michigan 15 West Virginia 15
Minnesota, Minneapolis and Wisconsin 15
St. Paul 15 Wyoming 20
The other stations 20
TARIFF OF AUTOMOBILE CAB SERVICE,
Fron one point to another in the city, not passing the Calzada
de Belascoain first zone, from east to west, same passing
the city from north to south, for one or two persons $0.20
For three persons 25
For four persons jo
It first zone (Belascoain Ave.) is passed and not the second,
.limited by Infanta St., one or two persons 20
For three persons 30
The Republic of Cuba 36
Passing the second zone to the Quinta de los Molinos and
bridge of the Agua Dulce on Principe Street, one or two
Three persons 45
Four persons 50
For business purpose, per hour:
For two persons 1.25
For three persons 1.35
For four persons i . 45
For pleasure per hour, in any direction:
For two persons 2.00
For three persons 2.25
For four persons 2 . 50
To the Colon Cemetery and return i .60
To Vedado from one to three persons 90
To Carmelo from one to three persons i .00
To Vedado or Carmelo and return from one to three persons i . 50
To Cerro up to Palatino for two persons i .00
Ten cents for each additional person.
To Cerro up to Palatino and return for two persons i . 50
Ten cents for each additional person.
Jesus del Monte up to corner of Toyo for two persons 60
Ten cents for each additional person.
To Jesus del Monte and return for two persons i .00
At any of the five points the automobile is obliged to wait
ten minutes without any extra charge to its occupants.
HACK FARES, HAVANA
1 From one point to another in City, not passing the Calzada
de Belascoain, first zone, from east to west, same passing
the city from north to south, for one or two persons. . .$0.20
2 For three persons 25
3 For four persons 30
4 If first zone (Belascoain Ave.) is passed and not the second,
limited by Infanta St., one or two persons 25
5 For three persons 30
6 For four persons 35
Carriages taken for going and return journeys
in any of the six points mentioned above will
wait 30 minutes at the end of the going journey.
Coachmen cannot be compelled to go beyond the
second zone after 9 p. m.
The Republic of Cuba
After 1 1 p. m. and until 6 a. m., all fares double.
All journeys not specified in this tariff will be
paid by previous arrangement.
Tourists who wish to avoid all difficulties
with cabmen should never engage a public car-
riage for a long drive without previously, through
a hotel interpreter, or clerk, having come to an
agreement with the coachmen as to the route to
be taken, the stops to be made, and the amount to
be paid at the end of the trip. Coachmen are
human, and there is no fixed tariff for special
Also, the law sets the price of a carriage hired
by the hour, for business purposes, at $1.25, for
one or two persons, but the cabman is accustomed
to receive $1.50, and his services are well worth it.
When engaging a carriage for driving by the
hour the tourist will do well to specify, through
the hotel clerk, or interpreter, how long he wants
the conveyance, and to see the time on starting,
as the coachmen do not understand English, and
by doing this will avoid all the difficulties with
POINTS OF INTEREST IN AND AROUND
President's Palace, Visiting Red and Blue Rooms.
Colon Cathedral at the Tomb of Columbus.
Palace of State and Justice.
United States Legation.
Colon Cemetery, inaugurated 1868.
Almendares Base Ball Park Former Bull Ring.
Vedado (meaning forbidden), Havana's Fashionable Suburb.
San Juan de Dios Park.
Plaza de Armas Army Park.
The Republic of Cuba 38
Templete Memorial Chapel to Columbus, 1828.
La Fuerza Fortress, built 1538, oldest in New World.
Merced Church, built 1782.
La Punta Park and Fortress.
Carcel The City Jail.
Malecon Havana's Fashionable Driveway.
Beneficencia Orphan Asylum.
Federal Prison Santa Clara Battery.
Botanical Gardens of the University of Havana.
Tacon Market built 1836 one of the largest in the world.
Colon Park India Park Prado.
Clerk's Club Produce Exchange Building.
Centre Gallego's Club has 40,000 membership.
San Francisco Convent Albear Statue, erected 1887.
Vento Springs Havana's water supply.
Mazorra Insane Asylum.
El Cano an old town.
Toledo Sugar Mill Marianoa.
Castle of Madame Abreu.
Carlos III Avenue.
Palatino Park, Palatino Reservoir.
La Lisa Bridge.
Morro Castle, built in 1587.
Cabanas Fortress, built in 1763.
Atares Castle, built in 1763.
Principe Fortress, built in 1774.
Torreon de la Chorrera, built in 1646.
Tower de San Lazaro, built in 1536.
Student's Memorial, built in 1871.
Charity Asylum, founded in 1794.
Belen Observatory, founded in 1704.
The Aldama Palace, built in 1860.
Paseo de Tacon, built in 1835.
Obispo and O'Reilly Streets, founded in 1763.
Guanabacoa Town, founded in the i6th century.
Terminal Station, with all R. R. lines, 1912
The old San Francisco Convent and Church, in which the
General Post Office is now installed.
The Republic of Cuba
Cock Pit Havana.
The Agricultural Station at Santiago de las Vegas.
Marianao town 1 8,000.
Quemados sub. of Marianao.
I. a Playa Bathing Beach.
Camp Columbia original camp of the United States Army,
now permanent barracks of the Cuban Army.
Monuments to American Soldiers who died during Spanish
Power House Havana Electric Railway.
Morro Castle and Cabanas Fortress
Visiting the cells and dungeons in which Cuban
political prisoners were kept and afterward shot,
at the memorial "Laurel Ditch" and the place
where the commander Velazquez fell fighting
against England in 1762.
Seeing Havana and Its Suburbs, a Typical
One Day Trip
Visiting Obispo St., Columbus Cathedral,
Senate, Presidential Palace, Memorial Chapel,
La Fuerza, Merced Church, Tacon Market,
Botanical Garden, General \\'eyler's Summer
Palace, Colon Cemetery, Cigar Factory, Vedado,
Havana's Aristocratic Suburb, Orphan Asylum,
Malecon Drive, the Prado, and other places of
Country Trip in Automobile, 40 Miles Round
A delightful trip affording a fine view of Cuban
landscape, with its abundance of sugar, tobacco,
banana and pineapple plantations, orange and
cocoanut groves, Marianao, Camp Columbia and
The Republic of Cuba 40
To Providencia Sugar Mill and Plantation
A delightful and popular excursion of 70 miles
ride by modern electric railroad, through some of
Cuba's most charming rural scenery; visitors are
enabled to see in operation the very latest methods
for extracting raw sugar from the cane.
Sixty miles eastward from Havana, through
extensive sugar cane fields and many other beau-
A daily excursion organized by the United
Railways of Havana, includes first class passage
on train, round trip. Luncheon in Mantanzas,
carriage drive to Hermitage of Monserrato,
overlooking Yumuri Valley and a visit to the
Bellamar Caves a fine specimen of cave which
has caused the admiration of tourists from all
parts of the world.
In response to an inquiry of the United States
Custom Officials of just what can be bought in
Cuba up to the value of $100.00 and taken to
the United States without paying duty, the
Treasury Department of the United States has
"Said exemption ($100.00) should be confined
to such articles in the nature of personal and
household effects, curios, souvenirs, wearing
apparel, made up or unmade, table linen, china-
This exemption includes the following things
which are in such demand among all tourists
41 The Republic of Cuba
Hand-made laces, table linen and embroideries,
bed linen, dresses, made and unmade, fans,
antique furniture, bric-a-brac, chinaware, sou-
venirs of all kinds and panama hats.
Fifty cigars or 300 cigarettes, or 3 pounds of
manufactured smoking tobacco may be taken
into the United States by each passenger free
of duty. Quantities in excess of this allowance
will be required to pay duty. The above allow-
ance is in addition to the $100.00 exemption.
Every tourist is warned that although an
aigrette or feather from any wild bird is brought
from the United States, it cannot be taken back
there. This prohibition does not include ostrich
plumes nor those of any domestic fowl.
FOREIGN LEGATIONS, ETC.
Germany Virtudes 2
Argentina Calle 15 No. 302
Austria-Hungary Cuba 64
Belgium San Lazaro 243
Bolivia Jesus Maria 49
Brazil Calle 13
Chile Aguiar 1 1 6
China Amistad 1 28
Colombia Paseo 1 6
Costa Rica San Miguel 1 20
Denmark Habana and Obrapia
El Salvador O'Reilly n
Equador Calle 16
Spain Prado 68
United States of America Banco Nacional 505
France Calle F y 1 5, Vedado
Great Britain San Juan de Dios I
Greece Banco National
Guatemala Loaltad 1 1 6
Haiti Calle 17 No. 347, Vedado
Honduras San Ignncio 106
Italy Cuba 48
The Republic of Cuba 42
Mexico Compostela 145
Monaco Oficios 1 8
Nicaragua San Ignacio 30
Norway Lonja del Comercio 443
Panama Calzada 90, Vedado
Netherlands Amargura 6
Paraguay Oficios 36
Peru. . .' H. No. 138
Portugal Virtudes 74
Russia Banco Nacional
Santo Domingo Calle 2 y 25, Vedado
Sweden Amargura 6
Uruguay Consulado 32
Venezuela San Ignacio 76^2
ISLE OF PINES
Population, 4,515 Inhabitants
Nothing could be more beautiful than a moon-
light sail across the Caribbean from Cuba, or a
beautiful sunset on the way to Batabano from
Havana, via the United Railways of Havana, or
at Nueva Gerona with the quaintness of the spot
and the balmy climate so invigorating.
Almost surrounded by the green and inviting
mountains of Sierra de las Casas, and the Sierra
de Caballas lies Nueva Gerona, the Capital City
of the Isle of Pines.
These ranges of Las Casas and De Caballas
have profitable marble quarries, which have been
worked from earliest times.
The automobile roads all over this tropical
island are very good, and the sea (never far away)
invites one to its shores. On the south coast
beautiful concha shells are found in abundance.
Fishing in portions ot the Island is a pleasant
pastime to many visitors. At Nueva Gerona
there is a first-class, up-to-date hotel, from the
upper balcony of which the view of the sea, river
and mountains is charming.
The Republic of Cuba
There are springs of mineral waters, chiefly
magnesia, in the Island, much of which is bottled
and enjoys fame and a large sale throughout
Cuba. In fact, mineral water today constitutes
one of the principal items of the exports of the
Plying between Batabano and the Isle of Pines
is the steamer Cristobal Colon which was espe-
cially built for this service. One desiring to take
this trip may leave Havana on the evening of
Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays; by train to
Batabano leaving the new Central Station at
6.10 p. m. and reaching Nueva Gerona early the
Fare from Havana to the Isle of Pines is $6.00,
exclusive of meals and berth on steamer, and
$10.50 round trip. Ticket valid for 15 days.
Population, 3,200 Inhabitants
Another charming excursion may be made to
the town of Madruga, which can be reached in
a few hours' time from Havana. It is a typical
Cuban Village, nestling among a pleasant group
of hills, and has been famous for generations in
Cuba for valuable sulphur and iron springs
which abound there. There are bathing estab-
lishments in this town so that the healing waters
may be advantageously enjoyed by the visitors.
The drinking water, also, known as "Copey,"
enjoys equal fame, and is highly recommended
tor disorders of the digestive organs. There is
no doubt that on account of its excellent location
and its close proximity to Havana, Madruga is
a town with a great future before it. Already,
very desirable hotel accommodations may be had
there the year round.
The Republic of Cuba
Population, 48,000 Inhabitants
The city of Santa Clara is the second inland
town of Cuba in point of size and importance.
The air and soil here are remarkably dry, and the
atmosphere the clearest of the Island, which may
account for the exceptional beauty for which its
women are famous. It has always been a city
of much wealth, and the visitor will discover in
it some features entirely unique. Very interest-
ing side trips to Sagua, Caibarien, Remodios,
Cienfuegos and other points on the Cuban
Central Railway may be made from Santa Clara.
Population, 75,000 Inhabitants
Of all the many excursions from Havana the
most popular and interesting is that to the
beautiful city of Matanzas, sixty miles eastward
from the Capital, and possessing all the quaint
and foreign aspects that are so characteristic of
Cuban cities and the same time is unusually
rich in picturesque surroundings.
The beautiful valley of the Yumuri, which
elicited such unstinted praise from the great
Humboldt; the wonderful and dense tropical
vegetation on the upper reaches of the Canimar
River and its tributary, the Moreto; the won-
derful Caves of Bellamar, the subterranean
wonderland, several miles in extent, lined with
beautiful crystal formations of stalactites and
stalagmites, in which electric lights strike a
thousand sparks, and gleam in pools of profound
depths. Its explored length is three miles; there
are bridges and paths, and the place is well kept
The Republic of Cuba
Yumuri Valley and the Caves of Bellamar are
the "Show places" of Matanzas. To see either
alone is well worth the journey to Cuba, and both
together form an attraction doubly strong.
So charming a city is Matanzas that every
tourist should, if possible, make a stay there of
several days; they will find suitable accommoda-
tion at the hotels given in the list on page 31.
For those who may not be able to spend more
than one day in Matanzas, the United Railways
of Havana have arranged to run during the
tourist season, commencing early in January, a
daily personally-conducted excursion, leaving the
new Central Station at 8.15 a. m., in charge of
an Knglish-speaking guide and lecturer, and
reaching Havana at 5.54 p. m. on the return trip.
This excursion, which has become the most
popular in Cuba, includes first-class railway fare
to and from Matanzas, luncheon at Matanzas,
coach rides to Monserrate overlooking the Yu-
muri Valley, about the city, along the beautiful
promenade skirting the bay, and to the Caves
of Bellamar, and back to the station, together
with admission to the caves, for the price of $8.00.
Children under twelve, $4.00. Tickets are on
sale at the Inglaterra Hotel, at the Central
Station, and the City Ticket Office of the United
Railways of Havana, Prado 118 (Central Park),
Population, 12,000 Inhabitants
Caibarien is also a most important port, and
is the outlet tor several large sugar mills in its
vicinity. Through it are also exported large
quantities of tobacco from the important tobacco
centers ot Camajuani, Remedios and Placetas,
The Republic of Cuba 46
all large, prosperous towns and offering something
of interest each in its own way. The Cuban
Central Railway have both broad and narrow
gauge runs through some of the prettiest scenery
imaginable and is a trip which should certainly
not be missed. Sugar mills, cane fields and
banana groves, can be seen at frequent intervals,
and the view from the rear platform of the train
when one has proceeded a little way on the
journey, embracing as it does the wide blue ocean
and Caribarien Bay, is one that will always be
PINAR DEL RIO
(Capital of Province of Same Name)
Population, 53,000 Inhabitants
Famed as Havana is, as the home of the most
fragrant and delectable of all cigars, no less
famous to the more initiated is "Vuelta Abajo,"
the name of the district in Western Pinar Del
Rio Province where grows the best and most
aromatic leaf, to which superior grade of tobacco
this name is given.
The Western Railways of Havana extend
nearly the whole length of the Province of Pinar
Del Rio, and offer exceptionally interesting excur-
sions, notably among which are those to Rancho
Boyeros and Santiago de las Vegas, where much
American capital has been invested in the culti-
vation of citrus fruits. Santiago de las Vegas
is also interesting as the location of the National
Agronomical Agricultural Experimental Station
Pinar del Rio, the Capital of the Province, is
an excellent place to make one's headquarters,
from which to make delightful rides or automobile
excursions through the great tobacco country
47 The Republic of Cuba
west, and north to the charming Vinales Valley.
There are good hotels, and several days may be
spent with comfort. Tourists may avail them-
selves of the reduced round trip rates in force
during the winter season.
Population, 75,000 Inhabitants
Cienfuegos was founded by Don Luis Clouet
in 1519. The city is modern in character, with
streets forty-five feet wide, and is one of the
busiest and most enterprising towns in Cuba.
Near it are several well-equipped sugar mills.
Cienfuegos Bay, eleven miles long and from four
to five in width, forms one of the finest natural
harbors in the world, with room for a thousand
ships. The city possesses a very fine Cathedral,
and the Terry Theatre, close to the Plaza,
decorated with laurel and royal palms makes one
of the prettiest plazas of Cuba.
Punta Gorda is a charming residential suburb
and equally delightful are the colonies at Cayo
Carenas. Jagua Castle, a picturesque fortifica-
tion bequeathed to Cuba by the artist-builders
of the time of Philip V of Spain, was constructed
to protect the harbor from pirates which infested
these waters in the olden days. To meet the
requirements of the increasing traffic between
Havana and Cienfuegos, the United Railways of
Havana recently inaugurated a new direct service
ot trains, for which entirely new equipment,
including comfortable sleeping cars, were con-
structed. These trains southbound, leave Havana
at 10.30 p. m. daily and arrive in Cienfuegos
at 7.17 a. m. next clay. And northbound, they
leave Cienfuegos daily at 10 p. m. and arrive in
Havana at 6.20 a. m.
The Republic of Cuba 48
A convenient service of day trains in both
directions is maintained via Santa Domingo, at
which point passengers change trains. The fares
on the night direct train are $8.69 first class.
Berth in sleeping car is $3.00. Section, $6.00
and Drawing Room, $10.00. On the day train
Santo Domingo Route, the fares are $9.15 first
class. Tourist round trip ticket via direct night
train, $12.00, valid 15 days (in tourist season
Population, 45,000 Inhabitants
Guantanamo is reached by changing trains at
San Luis, a station about twenty miles north of
Santiago. It is fast becoming a point of con-
siderable attraction to tourists on account of the
United States Naval Station located near there.
Tourists bound for Guantanamo are recommended
to proceed to Santiago, where there are modern
hotels, and whence they can leave on the morning
train for San Luis, where it connects for Guan-
tanamo. First class fare from Havana, $25.58;
round trip, $42.02 (in tourist season only).
SAGUA LA GRANDE
Population, 29,000 Inhabitants
Sagua la Grande is on the river of the same
name, which is one of the most important of the
north coast, being navigable for twenty miles.
It has always been a city of some wealth, and the
visitor will discover in it some features entirely
The Republic of Cuba
Population, 68,000 Inhabitants
Founded in 1515 by order of Don Diego
Velazquez. The city lies on a plain about mid-
way between coasts, 550 feet above sea level.
Its climate in winter is especially ideal.
The city of Camaguey looks its antiquity. It
is full of quaint and picturesque nooks and
corners. The projecting window grills, the heavy
cornices and overhanging, fluted tile roofs, the
tinajones (earthenware jars) for rain water, some-
times of immense size, make a succession of
Camaguey Province is famous as a grazing
country. The cattle industry is the principal
source of wealth. There are also valuable timber
lands; and honey and wax are exported. Among
the attractions of Camaguey are its time-worn
churches; the most interesting is La Merced,
built in 1628, by missionaries of Our Lady of
Mercy. Its high altar is of silver; it was
fashioned from 40,000 Spanish dollars.
The Cuba Railroad Company operates the
Hotel "Camaguey." It occupies with its gardens
nearly five acres. The great corridors are striking
features, and the inner gardens (patios) bright with
foliage plants and tropical flowers, are very beauti-
ful. Almost all the bedrooms have private bath-
rooms attached, and all are equipped with tele-
phones, while the drainage, plumbing and
sanitary arrangements throughout are perfect.
Pure water is provided from an artesian well.
The hotel is run on the American plan.
Leaves Central Station (daily) at 10.00 p. in.,
arriving next day at Camaguey I2..>o p. m., and
at Santiago, 9.45 p. m.
The Republic of Cuba 50
Havana-Camaguey day train leaves Central
Station (daily) at 8.15 a. m., arriving Camaguey,
10.30 p. m., same day. First class fare, $15.49.
Round trip, $23.24 (in tourist season only).
SANTIAGO DE CUBA
Population, 60,000 Inhabitants
Founded by Velazquez in 1514. Santiago is
the second most interesting city in Cuba, not
only because of the natural beauty of its situation,
but also on account of the charm of its history.
It was from Santiago that Gryjalva set out
upon the voyage in the course of which he dis-
covered Yucatan, and from here sailed Cortez
on the 1 8th day of November, 1 5 1 8, to accomplish
the conquest of Mexico. And it was from
Santiago that Cervera, 380 years later, went
forth with his fleet to destruction on that fateful
3rd of July, 1898, which marked the end of
Spanish Domination in the New World.
From Santiago a macadam road leads to the vil-
lages of Cuavitas and San Vicente, thence it winds
up the face of a mountain and crosses the Sierra
Maestra range to Dos Caminos and San Luis.
From the crown of the first mountain at an
elevation of 1,526 feet a magnificent view of the
city and bay of Santiago is obtained a matchless
panorama, with the deep blue Caribbean Sea
in the far back-ground.
Santiago contains many historic points, such
as the Morro Castle, built in 1664, the Peace
Tree, the San Juan Hill; El Caney, the Cathedral,
the Cemetery with the graves of the distinguished
Cuban patriots, Estrada Palma, Cespedes, and
Marti, and the tomb of the members of the
Virginius expedition who were shot by the
51 The Republic of Cuba
Spaniards. Santiago Harbor is six miles in
length and three wide, with the narrow entrance
walled in by the surrounding mountains.
Houses of ancient Spanish type abound, and
there is far greater wealth of coloring of buildings
than anywhere else. One looks down steep,
fantastically colored streets and over red-tiled
roofs to the bay. The traveler visiting Santiago
has heretofore been inconvenienced by the lack
of suitable hotels and of inadequate steamship
communication between Santiago and Jamaica.
The Cuba Railroad Company has made these
inconveniences a thing of the past. A splendidly
equipped hotel of five stories, has been built
and is operated by the Railroad Company on the
site occupied by the old "Casa Granda." The
hotel is furnished with all modern conveniences,
private baths, telephones^ ticket and baggage
The Havana-Santiago trains carry sleeping cars
and an observation coach, which enable the
traveler to obtain comprehensive views of the
country traversed. All sleeping cars are con-
structed to equal the highest standard of those
on American lines, and are equipped with electric
light and fans and every modern convenience.
The Havana-Santiago Express train leaves Cent-
ral Station every night at 10.00 o'clock and
arrives at Santiago the next day at 9.45 p. m.
Fare, first class, $24.00. Round trip, $36.17 (in
tourist season only).
We will be pleased to supply further informa-
tion regarding Cuban conditions.
BANKERS' LOAN & SECl RITIES COMPANY
\i:\v ORLEANS LOUISIANA